Second job with women for livelihood
More and more Germans are following a minor job
Many Germans have a second job, and women in particular often depend on a second job to supplement their otherwise low income, reports the Hans Böckler Foundation. Although go „a total of about the same number of men and women after a minor sideline“, but the motives are very different.
In their current study, the Berlin social researcher Dr. Tanja Schmidt and dr. Dorothea Voss of the Hans-Böckler-Stiftung investigated the development of minor jobs, the motivations for the second job and the impact on the labor market on the basis of the data of the socio-economic panel of the years 2004 to 2011. Since 2004, the number of minor jobbers (with a current maximum of € 450) has increased by about one million - from 1.66 million to 2.59 million. In particular, women are often dependent on a second job in addition to a job requiring social insurance contributions to provide a livelihood, whereas men tend to use the mini-job as a welcome opportunity for additional income.
Women in part-time employment need a second job to secure their livelihood
As far as women's employment is concerned, the researchers found that they often work part-time when they take on a second job. The part-time job is often involuntary because „Secondary job seekers more often express the desire for a longer working time in their main job than employees who do not have a second job“, reports the Hans Böckler Foundation. The women would take up a second employment, above all, to secure a livelihood. They usually have a lower income in the main activity than men or have to settle for a lower hourly wage and work more often part-time. „The higher the individual income of a woman, the lower the likelihood that she will additionally perform a mini-job“, so the announcement of the foundation. For the auxiliary mini-jobbers, the data set used resulted in an average gross hourly wage of 14.47 euros in the main employment, whereas in men this average reached 18.42 euros.
Divorce as a cause for the second job in women
The reason for taking a second job with women, according to the results of the current study, is often a separation from the spouse who provides the additional income „economically necessary“ makes. When the women in a divorce „they fall outside the materially leveling status of marriage or go out, they face the need to compensate for a lack of income by taking a minor sideline“, write Dr. Tanja Schmidt and dr. Dorothea Voss. Here it becomes clear that the institutional framework in Germany is not suitable for protecting women from poverty in the event of drastic changes during their life course.
Men use a second job as an additional income
According to the results of the researchers, men usually do not pursue a side mini-job for reasons of livelihood. The mini jobbers belong to the group of financially better off and „More than half of the men with a minor side job are in the top two-fifths of the income distribution“, reports the Hans Böckler Foundation. The study authors assume that „Above all, qualified skilled workers are among the male minor jobbers“ can be found, „who, in addition to their employment subject to social insurance, are interested in one Additional Income to have.“
Mini job to handle overtime?
The researchers see the increase in secondary mini-jobs quite critical, as these exempt from tax and social security contributions, state-subsidized employment relationships in their view, the situation in the labor market distort. If „especially in regions where employment is almost full, the number of mini-jobs (increases) - for example in Baden-Württemberg“, according to the study authors „The question of whether tax and social insurance liable for overtime are partially handled through tax-free side-mini-jobs.“ This impression was also confirmed in the industry-specific evaluation of the data.
Critical development in several industries
In particular, industries with many part-time jobs, according to the study results, also a high proportion of side-mini jobs. For example, secondary miner jobs in their main occupation are most common in the three industries „Education, teaching, research“, „Health and social work“ such as „Public administration, social insurance, advocacy“ been active. The fee level was located in the lower to middle range, „so that it can be assumed, in particular for part-time workers, that they can hardly earn a living wage in the main activity“, write Schmidt and Voss. The „Health and social work“ and the area „Education, teaching, research“ are „particularly noticeable industries in the happening around Neben-Minijobs“, The researchers continue to report. Because here many secondary job seekers would practice the same job in main and secondary employment.
Abuse of the minor jobs?
The study authors conclude that it is necessary to check whether the special status of mini-jobs under tax and social security law accelerates the problematic splitting up of working hours into social insurance and marginal employment. The current development is especially for women „a precarious path“, because the secondary mini-jobs with regard to the acquired claims to the social security system have significant disadvantages compared to employment subject to social security contributions. (Fp)
Picture: Uschi Dreiucker