In particular, the big toe helps us humans to maintain balance, but is exposed to significant daily burdens. In addition, wearing unsuitable footwear can result in permanent stress. Typical consequences are arthrosis in the great toe joint with subsequent stiffening of the joint (hallux rigidus), a hallux valgus (misalignment of the big toe) and the development of a hammer toe or splayfoot. The so-called sandal gap (oversized distance between the big toe and the second toe) is - as the name implies - usually the result of unsuitable shoes.
Other toenails are often related to toenails and the appearance of the skin. For example, infections with nail fungus are a common complaint, but also athlete's foot is often on the toes or in the spaces between the toes. In addition, many people suffer from ingrown toenails, which is not only painful, but can also cause inflammation, which in the worst case are associated with further health problems.
An extremely serious complaint, especially concerning the toes, is the development of a so-called gangrene. This is a necrosis (death) of the tissue, which can occur, for example, as a result of a lack of blood flow in arteriosclerosis. Often there is an accompanying bacterial infection, which increases the extent of necrosis and at worst can cause blood poisoning. A removal of the affected tissue or an amputation of the affected toes are relatively often required treatment measures in a gangrene.
It is not uncommon for congenital malformations to develop on the toes, with so-called syndactyly being the most common form. Here, the second and third toes are fused together, but this does not entail any functional limitations and is only perceived as cosmetic by some sufferers from a cosmetic point of view. Other possible malformations of the toes are shortening of single or multiple toes, the absence of toes and the expression of excess toes. (Fp)
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